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Bedouin Castle: Hotel, Safari, Nile Tours © 2013

ABU SIR and ABU GHUROB. These two sites are side by side and contain pyramid complexes at Abu Sir, and sun temples at Abu Ghurob.  The pyramids at Abu Sir are much smaller than those at Giza, and they belonged to the 5th Dynasty pharaohs Sahure, Niuserre, Nefererkare, and Ranaferef (ca. 2450 BC).  Sun temples were not mortuary sites but rather places of religious services; they contain a great obelisk, which is the focal point of each complex.  The obelisk was surrounded by a series of chambers and an enclosure wall.  Services at sun temples followed the patterns of the sun: dawn, high noon, dusk, etc, and animal sacrifices were made at the appropriate times.  Such sacrifices were not wasted on ritual alone; they were meant to feed the people who maintained the sun temples and those who were without food. Although there were 6 sun temples built, only 2 remain today, those of Niuserre and Userkaf.